Active substance: Azithromycin
Adjuvants include, for example, surfactants such, soya lecithin and oleic acid; sorbitan esters such as sorbitan trioleate; and polyvinylpyrrolidone.
Preservatives and other additives include, for example, antimicrobials, anti-oxidants, chelating agents and inert gases e. Preservatives can be used to inhibit microbial growth or increase stability of the active ingredient thereby prolonging the shelf life of the pharmaceutical formulation.
Suitable preservatives are known in the art and include, for example, EDTA, EGTA, benzalkonium chloride or benzoic acid or benzoates, such as sodium benzoate.
Antioxidants include, for example, ascorbic acid, vitamin A, vitamin E, tocopherols, and similar vitamins or provitamins. An antimicrobial agent or compound directly or indirectly inhibits, reduces, delays, halts, eliminates, arrests, suppresses or prevents contamination by or growth, infectivity, replication, proliferation, reproduction, of a pathogenic or non- pathogenic microbial organism.
Classes of antimicrobials include, antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal and antiparasitics. Antimicrobials include agents and compounds that kill or destroy -cidal or inhibit -static contamination by or growth, infectivity, replication, proliferation, reproduction of the microbial organism.
Exemplary antibacterials antibiotics include penicillins e.
Particular non-limiting classes of anti-virals include reverse transcriptase inhibitors; protease inhibitors; thymidine kinase inhibitors; sugar or glycoprotein synthesis inhibitors; structural protein synthesis inhibitors; nucleoside analogues; and viral maturation inhibitors.
Exemplary antifungals include agents such as benzoic acid, undecylenic alkanolamide, ciclopiroxolamine, polyenes, imidazoles, allylamine, thicarbamates, amphotericin B, butylparaben, clindamycin, econaxole, amrolfine, butenafine, naftifine, terbinafine, ketoconazole, elubiol, econazole, econaxole, itraconazole, isoconazole, miconazole, sulconazole, clotrimazole, enilconazole, oxiconazole, tioconazole, terconazole, butoconazole, thiabendazole, voriconazole, saperconazole, sertaconazole, fenticonazole, posaconazole, bifonazole, fluconazole, flutrimazole, nystatin, pimaricin, amphotericin B, flucytosine, natamycin, tolnaftate, mafenide, dapsone, caspofungin, actofunicone, griseofulvin, potassium iodide, Gentian Violet, ciclopirox, ciclopirox olamine, haloprogin, ketoconazole, undecylenate, silver sulfadiazine, undecylenic acid, undecylenic alkanolamide and Carbol-Fuchsin.
Non-limiting illustrative examples of aqueous carriers include water, saline sodium chloride solution, dextrose e.
Examples of non-aqueous solvents are propylene glycol, polyethylene glycol, vegetable oils such as olive oil, and injectable organic esters such as ethyl oleate. Intravenous vehicles include fluid and nutrient replenishers, electrolyte replenishers such as those based on Ringer's dextrose.
Depending on delivery device efficiency, effective dry powder dosage levels typically fall in the range of about 10 to about 100 mg.
MDIs typically include an actuator, a metering valve, and a container that holds a suspension or solution, propellant, and surfactant e. Activation of the actuator causes a predetermined amount to be dispensed from the container in the form of an aerosol, which is inhaled by the subject.
MDIs typically use liquid propellant and typically, MDIs create droplets that are 15 to 30 microns in diameter, optimized to deliver doses of 1 microgram to 10 mg of a therapeutic. Nebulizers are devices that turn medication into a fine mist inhalable by a subject through a face mask that covers the mouth and nose.