Active substance: Norfloxacin
This reference contains a mass of information on respiratory physiology of birds but unfortunately only on a very limited number of species.
It licensed use in acute and chronic complicated kidney infections has been withdrawn as a result.
CHMP stated that doctors should not prescribe oral norfloxacin for complicated pyelonephritis and should consider switching patients already taking oral norfloxacin for this type of infection to an alternative antibiotic.
Contraindications As noted above, under licensed use, norfloxacin is also now considered to be contraindicated for the treatment of certain sexually transmitted diseases by some experts due to bacterial resistance.
Patients taking any of these drugs concomitantly with norfloxacin should be carefully monitored.
Pregnancy Norfloxacin has been reported to rapidly cross the blood-placenta and blood-milk barrier, and is extensively distributed into the fetal tissues.
For this reason norfloxacin and other fluoroquinolones are contraindicated during pregnancy due to the risk of spontaneous abortions and birth defects. The manufacturer only recommends use of norfloxacin during pregnancy when benefit outweighs risk.
The cervical air sac extends up the neck via the tubular extensions running one on each side of the cervical vertebrae, with one diverticulum inside the neural canal and another externally running through the transverse foraminae formed by the head and tubercle of the vestigial rib.
This has not been seen in other birds. Possibly this structure is more developed in the parrots as it extends round the caudal part of the cranium and connects with the postorbital diverticulum of the infraorbital sinus.
The medullary cavity of some bones of the skeleton the sternum, the scapula, humerus, femur, pelvis and cervical and thoracic vertebrae is pneumonised by diverticula from the air sacs.
However in swallows, swifts and some other small birds pneumonisation is minimal. In hummingbirds it is absent. In some aquatic and diving birds, including diving ducks, cormorants, loons, rails and penguins, pneumonisation of the skeleton is also poor or absent.
Most species have only a left ovary and a left oviduct.
However in some species covering some 16 orders of bird among which are the Falconides i. These normal anatomical differences are important to note when carrying out autopsies. In kiwis there are right and left ovaries but only one oviduct with a very large infundibulum extending across the whole body which collects ova from both ovaries.