Category: Medical

About Sterility in Medicine

There are a few different ways that sterility is achieved in the medical and pharmaceutical fields. The first is using steam. This technique was actually invented back in the 1880’s by a man called Charles Chamberland. He came up with the autoclave, a steam sterilizer that used water to create steam to clean surgical tools and kill bacteria between patients. Today we still use this technique to clean glassware and surgical instruments.

What about things that can’t withstand high temperatures? In the case of sensitive electronic components, plastics and cardboard that need to be sterilized, the technique is EtO or EO, and it uses Ethylene Oxide gas as the sanitizing agent.

Another way to sanitize things is by the use of dry heat. This is used for things like needles and metal instruments that can get very hot with no worry that they will disintegrate.

But what about medicines themselves? They can’t be steamed, but they can go through the process known as aseptic processing. This takes a sterile medicine and packages it in a sterile container using flash heating. It is a task that also requires the use of clean rooms, bacteria retaining filters and dry heat. By using this technique however, drugs can be imported and exported anywhere in the world without the need for refrigeration and will be sterile when they arrive at the patient.

Sterile medicines, equipment and tools all help to provide the best care possible to us when we are sick. We don’t have to worry about contamination as the risks for it is low if all temperatures, gases, humidity and pressure levels have been accurately monitored throughout the sterilization process to ensure validity and effectiveness. Medicine has come a long way and the results are safer and more reliable than ever before.

Over The Counter Drug

Cost-saving by Healthcare Systems
OTC medications reduce the necessity to visit the doctor/physician. This saves resources for the healthcare industry in particular, thereby allowing it to divert its resources to more pressing healthcare issues, which would require physician involvement, such as diagnosis and treatment procedures for serious conditions. OTC medicines provide access to safe medication for nearly 180 million patients, while, at the same time, saving capital for the healthcare industry. Self-care via these medications is estimated to contribute to savings as high as USD 5 billion to the taxpayers and consumers in the United States annually. As per CHPA, OTC medication saves around USD 102 billion for the US healthcare system annually.

Self-Control over Health
The OTC medications provide the liberty to patients to eliminate the need to visit a physician or other clinical setting for common ailments. Instead, they can easily procure medications to address their ailment by procuring drugs without a prescription. According to the Consumer Healthcare Products Association, around 81% of the adult population is using OTC medications. It is being helpful in providing symptomatic relief to around 60 million people. The statistics show that the consumers are aware of their health conditions and are paying attention to the treatment. OTC medication helps people meet healthcare needs and empower individuals about health management.

Product Innovation
OTC drugs that can treat multiple symptoms are another example of innovative products. Innovation is also resulting in improved performance, in terms of speed, strength, etc., thus improving the length of the effect. The diversification of the product is also achieved, as targeting different age groups – children, adults, woman, and old people with different products – are emerging and will drive the OTC drug market in future. The manufacturers of OTC target the women group, resorting to angles like pregnancy, weight loss, and even self-expression, which leads to new innovations. Similarly, OTC brands target children groups, with innovative offerings that consider two key drivers: enhancing the fun look and feel, and making it easier for parents to administer the dose to their kids.

Teen Drug Abuse
According to available statistics, around 12% of teenagers have admitted having abused OTC cough syrup. The major abuse of cough-and-cold medicines is seen among the teen population. Other medications include the usage of pseudoephedrine, marijuana, and diet pills. The major reason behind OTC abuse is the lack of education in teens about the dangers associated with OTC drugs. The parents are not well-educated about the adverse effects of OTC drugs, nor do they show interest to take the advice of physicians on this. This ultimately leads to hazardous casualties that can affect health or even lead to death.

Usage among the Geriatric Population
According to statistics, 40% of the OTC drugs are used by the geriatric population of age 65 and above. The geriatric population suffers from one or more diseases and are always on multiple medications. Sometimes, the OTC drugs purchased can cause the risk of drug interactions, leading to adverse drug effects. Other OTC medications, such as motion sickness pills and painkillers, that are commonly used by the elders cause hallucinations, stomach, and kidney problems, which can be considered as dangerous side effects for the geriatric population.

Usage in the Pregnant Population
Most of OTC drug labels carry the precaution about whether it can be used by pregnant women or not. However, due to negligence, people tend to use OTC drugs without proper knowledge, which may lead to life-threating situations. OTC drugs, such as Aspirin and Ibuprofen, should be avoided during the pregnancy, as they have shown adverse effects on unborn children or complications during delivery.

Using Medical Marijuana

Slowing down Alzheimer’s progression

According to studies, there has been an increase in the number of people suffering from Alzheimer’s. This has led to renewed interest in looking for medical solutions. The legalization of marijuana is seen by many as providing hope for those who show signs of early onset Alzheimer’s. Marijuana contains properties that can block the enzyme that is responsible for the progression of the disease. It also helps to prevent protein clumps, which can affect memory and cognition.

Stopping the spread of HIV throughout the body

People living with the virus can benefit from marijuana. Research carried out on monkeys has shown that the active ingredient present in cannabis was instrumental in stopping the spread of the HI- Virus. This THC ingredient, when received in daily doses, leads to more healthy cells in the body. This is good news especially considering the fact that the plant also helps to improve appetite. People living with the virus can reap from the medical benefits of the plant.

Slowing down spread of aggressive cancer cells

Studies have shown that a compound present in marijuana can stop cell metastasis in certain forms of cancer. Similar studies have also shown reductions in cell viability when there is a presence of leukemia cells. The reductions occur at different cell cycle phases, and this means that people at different stages of the disease can receive the benefits. According to some reports, researchers have used compounds found in marijuana to kill the cancer cells, providing relief for leukemia patients.

The effective pain relieving qualities

The most common use of the product is as an effective pain reliever. The plant’s anti-inflammatory and pain relief qualities have been effective in the treatment of a wide range of conditions and illnesses including migraines, multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis. The effects of cannabis are much more powerful than those of regular pain relievers such as aspirin. The medication can help to reduce dependence on most opiate-based drugs that tend to have highly addictive qualities.

Antibiotic Resistance

What Are The Major Causes Of Antibiotic Resistance To The People?

One of the causes of resistance to antibiotics is mutation. Every few hours, microbes tend to reproduce. This gives them the chance to rapidly multiply and adapt to their new host environment. However, in between these changes, mutation will rise. This helps a microbe to survive an antibiotic attack, which gives it the resistance it needs to battle the treatment.

Another reason why people develop resistance to antibiotics is their way of using it. Misuse of antibiotics may lead to the resistance of the microorganisms the treatment needs to get rid of. Also, there are times when a healthcare provider gives insufficient information on how to use the treatment. That said, patients do not have enough knowledge about the intake of an antibiotic, including the dosage and the time.

How To Prevent The Resistance To Antibiotics?

If you want to avoid any resistance to antibiotics, be sure to seek help from your doctor. This enables you to discuss all the specific medicine for your health condition. Plus, you will likewise know the proper dosage. These factors can help you avoid antibiotic resistance, and continue getting the benefits of the drugs you are using.

Antiviral Medications

Use of the medications

The medications are most effective when used during the start of an infection. The drugs work by inactivating the enzymes required in the reproduction of the virus. The good side with the antiviral drugs is that they can be used both as a prophylaxis and as maintenance therapy.

Side effects

Antiviral medications have adverse side effects especially when they are misused. Common side effects include: nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. To minimize the side effects it’s recommended that you take the drugs with food.

In times of diarrhea, it’s highly recommended that you take plenty of fluids in order to replenish the lost body fluids.

Precautions

Since the medications can bring about side effects, you should be very careful when taking them. For example, you should be very cautious when taking the drugs if you have a history of low blood cell count, renal impairment, and epilepsy.

You should also avoid antiviral medications such as Zanamivir if you have a history of respiratory illnesses.

To be on the safe side, you should always consult your doctor before you take the drugs. In fact you should never buy the medications by your own; you should wait for the doctor to prescribe them to you.

When taking the drugs, you should be cautious of the expiry date. If a drug has passed its expiry date, you should throw it away in a place where it can’t be accessed by kids.

Effects of Centesimal Potencies

Information on Centesimal Potencies

The scale of centesimal is largely based on the sole principle that the first and foremost potency must contain the hundredth part of the drug that is original and also each of the succeeding potencies. The designation of the scale is done by suffixing the letter ‘CH’ or ‘C’ to the number that indicates the potency. Thus the first potency will be called 1CH or 1C. This will be followed by 2CH or 2C. Thus it can be assumed that the number of the potency will be suffixed before the particular scale.

How is Centesimal Potency Prepared?

The centesimal potency has a method of preparation in order to dilute and increase the potency in a systematic way and to avoid adverse effects of crude drugs. The steps include:-

  1. A single part of the mother tincture is made to dilute in almost 99 parts of an alcohol and water-mixture (90:10 ratio).
  2. The liquid is then made to do succussion(stroke) at least 10 times in its own bottle. This is done by hitting the base of the bottle very firmly against palm or hard elastic substance. The liquid that is produced as a result of this method is called the 1C potency.
  3. One part of the 1c potency is diluted once more and then succussed in the 99 parts of alcohol and water mixture. The result is called as the 2C remedy.
  4. This continuous process of succussion and dilution is called as potentization. This process is further repeated in the same fashion in order to produce very high potencies of the remedy.

Homeopathy treatment with centesimal remedies is very common. The process which is used to produce this particular potency is so effective that it speeds up the process of cure immediately. The patient gets treated immediately and there are no side effects. Such is the efficiency of this process that it has treated millions of patients since the past 2 centuries.

Homeopathic Medicine for High Blood Pressure

In the field of heart related problems and hypertension, homeopathic medicines are doing very well. People have gained awareness regarding the importance and effectiveness of these medicines. These medicines remove the root cause of any disease thus eradicating the disease successfully. Apart from removing the root cause one major advantage homeopathic medicines is that they do not have any side effects. This means that the person who consumes these medicines will not have to deal with any other major organ problems related to kidneys, heart and also liver. Homeopathic medicines for high blood pressure have become the trend these days and the number of consumers of such medicines is only growing in number. They are not getting any lesser.

The most common method of homeopathic treatment for high blood pressure is the use of dietary supplements in order to control and encourage the heart and also vascular health. Also herbal medicines are used in the homeopathic medicines. This is a very interesting fact as herbal medicines are very advantageous considering the long term cure and the lack of side effects. These medicines have an enormous amount of advantages which cannot be overlooked or undermined.Apart from being effective these medicines can be used for a very long period of time. They have a very good storage capacity which means they can be stored for a very long period of time.

If a person apart from consuming homeopathic medicines consumes a good and a balanced diet, half of his problems will be solved effectively. He will just have to give some time for the medicines to kick in and once these medicines kick in everything will be solved. In the world of health care there is nothing better than homeopathic treatment. This is the reason why the demand for homeopaths is increasing as the years pass by. Apart from having such long term effects they are very easy to consume and also have a good taste associated with them.

Medical Negligence

In order for a patient to have a medical malpractice claim for medical negligence, he or she has to prove (1) that the medical professionals had a duty to provide a standard of care and failed to do so, (2) that the patient suffered an injury or injuries, and (3) that the injury was caused by the alleged medical negligence.

What does “standard of care” mean? It varies from state to state. Some laws restrict the standard to physicians in the same area of the country, while others extend the standard to doctors on a national level. For example, a heart surgeon will be held to the standard of other surgeons in the same field. If he or she acted in a way that differs from the way most heart surgeons would have acted in similar circumstances, that surgeon may be found to have been medically negligent.

Since the body consists of interconnected systems, “causation” is a complicated issue in medical negligence. The medical personnel might argue that the treatment did not cause the injury but that it was instead caused by a condition the patient already had.

Psychologists and psychiatrists can also be sued for medical negligence, although these types of cases are much more difficult to prove because not only are the injuries non-physical, but causation is particularly complex.

In any type of case, the attorneys assigned by the physicians’ malpractice insurance company will likely try to argue that the injury was not caused by medical negligence.

For this reason, people who suffer injuries are advised to hire a lawyer to help them negotiate a settlement to recover the costs they incurred. Lawyers in this situation work on a “contingency” basis, which means that they do not require the client to pay them. Their fees are contingent upon receiving settlement monies from the medical malpractice insurance company. If the lawyer is successful in obtaining a settlement for the client, he or she then takes a percentage of the money as a fee. If the lawyer is not successful, he or she does not earn any money for the work. As a result, lawyers work hard to obtain settlements for their clients.

In some states, the settlement might include funds for pain and suffering, which is not a reimbursement for costs but a payment for the emotional stress experienced from the injury. Some states also allow for “punitive damages” if gross negligence or misconduct is involved. The amount allowed for such damages is often restricted. In the state of California, for example, no more than $250,000 can be awarded for non-economic damages.

When gross negligence or misconduct is involved, the local authorities might also bring a criminal action against the physician or medical facility. This action is separate from a medical malpractice case. In a criminal action, the plaintiff is the city or the state. A medical malpractice lawsuit is called a “civil” action, and the plaintiff in that case is the injured patient. Both the criminal and civil cases would have one or more defendants in common, however. The defendant is the person who is defending the claim – the party or parties who are alleged to have been medically negligent.

Note that only in cases of gross negligence does the health department take away a doctor’s medical license.

Most of these cases are settled out of court, but when the parties cannot agree on a settlement amount, the case goes to trial. A judge or jury then makes the decision as to whether the patient is entitled to monies and how much. Before a case goes to trial, however, years of negotiations might pass. During that period, the lawyers for both sides prepare legal papers that answer the questions of the other party. These are called “pre-trial discovery” papers.

Depositions are also often taken of the parties. These are interviews that allow the opposing side’s attorneys to ask questions.

It is not unusual for a settlement to take place at the courthouse during the jury selection process. This is a tactic that pushes both sides against the wall, trying to coerce them to give in. The plaintiff wants the defendant to give in by offering more money in the settlement, while the defendant wants the plaintiff to give in by accepting the current settlement offer. No one ever wants to take a case to trial if it can be helped because the costs of court are much higher than out-of-court settlements.

Avoid Drug Poisoning

Label the medications properly

After you have bought the medications from the suppliers, and stored them in a safe and dry area. The next step would be to label them correctly with administration instructions. This avoids confusion in the event another staff member decides to give the medication. If the patient has to carry the medications home, advise him/her on how to properly take the medications.

Watch out for allergies

This is a common mistake made even by the most experienced medical professionals, which often results in injuries. Before you administer the drugs, enquire from the patient whether he/she is allergic to a given medication or ingredient. This helps you give the right drug thus reducing the chances of poisoning.

Don’t ‘treat’ side effects

When the patients are taking the medications, they will always have side effects. For example, they might have stomachaches, diarrhea, headaches and many others. Depending on the way the patient is explaining it, you might think that he/she is suffering from another condition thus forcing you to prescribe additional medications. Which are unnecessary.

When you treat side effects with other medications, you put the patient at the risk of developing a reaction as the drugs react. To avoid this, when a patient comes with a condition, you should take your time to understand the history and what might be the cause. If the cause is a side effect, don’t prescribe any more medications.

Evidence Based Complementary Medicine

As the famous proverb suggests, “Prevention is better than cure” and evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine helps you achieve this goal. So, here are a few benefits that you might get if you follow an integrative healthcare protocol:

  • It helps you in receiving specific treatment plans as per your physical requirements. As each individual has a unique body, it is not advisable to subscribe to a generalized treatment protocol. An effective biotyping assessment studies your inherited traits such as body frame, personality type, digestive capacity, metabolic activity, nutrigenomics, as well as environmental factors. In this way, it provides you with a personalized holistic Integrative healthcare medicine advice.
  • It aims at examining and treating all the aspects of physical as well as emotional components. It is proven that daily stress negatively affects your emotions, biology and genetics. All this further results in greater risks of several chronic diseases such as cancer and heart disease!
  • It offers a wide range of Natural Cure and Remedies so that you are not completely dependent on pharmaceuticals, many of which have side-effects. The food that you eat is one of the biggest reasons behind your healthy (or unhealthy) life! Following unhealthy food habits can result in an increase in the risk of heart conditions, high blood sugar, obesity, etc. So, what could be better than utilizing food as a medicine?
  • It focuses on the prevention of diseases before it even occurs. While conventional medicines are prescribed for a lifetime for chronic disease, alternative medicine examines the root causes of the disease. It also encourages the patients to focus on preventing a disease by eating healthy foods, exercise, meditation, etc.